Cybersecurity 101:
The Fundamentals of Cybersecurity

Cybersecurity is becoming increasingly important in today’s world. CrowdStrike is providing explanations, examples and best practices on fundamental principles of a variety of cybersecurity topics. If you're looking for information on endpoint protection, cloud security, types of cyber attacks and more, you’ve come to the right place – welcome to Cybersecurity 101!

a
Active Directory Federation Service (AD FS)Read Post >

Active Directory Federation Service (AD FS) is a single sign on (SSO) feature developed by Microsoft that provides authenticated access to any domain, device, web application or system within the organization’s active directory (AD).

Advanced Endpoint Protection (AEP)Read Post >

Advanced endpoint protection (AEP) is a next-generation endpoint security solution that uses AI, machine learning, and other intelligent automation capabilities to provide more comprehensive cybersecurity protection from a variety of modern threats.

Advanced Persistent Threat (APT)Read Post >

An advanced persistent threat (APT) is a sophisticated, sustained cyberattack in which an intruder establishes an undetected presence in a network in order to steal sensitive data over a prolonged period of time.

b
BackportingRead Post >

Backporting is when a software patch or update is taken from a recent software version and applied to an older version of the same software.

Brute Force AttacksRead Post >

In a brute force attack, a threat actor tries to gain access by systematically trying as many combinations of usernames and guessed passwords as possible.

c
Cloud Access Security Broker (CASB)Read Post >

A cloud access security broker (CASB) is a security check point between cloud network users and cloud-based applications that manages and enforces all data security policies and practices, including authentication, authorization, alerts and encryption.

Cloud EncryptionRead Post >

Cloud encryption is the process of transforming data from its original plain text format to an unreadable format before it is transferred to and stored in the cloud.

Cloud Security 101Read Post >

Cloud security, or cloud computing security, is the strategy and solutions that protect cloud infrastructure, cloud data, and applications within a cloud environment, from threats and vulnerabilities.

Cloud Security AssessmentRead Post >

A cloud security assessment is an evaluation that tests and analyzes an organization’s cloud infrastructure to ensure the organization is protected from a variety of security risks and threats.

Container SecurityRead Post >

Container Security is the continuous process of protecting containers from vulnerabilities. This includes the container pipeline, deployment infrastructure, and supply chain.

Crypto-MalwareRead Post >

Crypto-malware is a type of malicious software, or malware, designed to carry out long-term cryptojacking cyberattacks.

CryptojackingRead Post >

Cryptojacking is the unauthorized use of a person's or organization's computing resources to mine cryptocurrency.

Cyber EspionageRead Post >

Cyber espionage, or cyber spying, is a type of cyberattack in which an unauthorized user attempts to access sensitive or classified data or intellectual property (IP) for economic gain, competitive advantage or political reasons.

Cyber Kill ChainRead Post >

The cyber kill chain is an adaptation of the military’s kill chain, which is a step-by-step approach that identifies and stops enemy activity.

CyberattackRead Post >

A cyberattack is an attempt by cybercriminals, hackers or other digital adversaries to access a computer network or system, usually for the purpose of altering, stealing, destroying or exposing information.

CybersecurityRead Post >

Cybersecurity is the act of defending digital assets, including networks, systems, computers and data, from cyberattacks.

d
Dark WebRead Post >

The dark web is a subsect of the internet where users can access unindexed web content anonymously through a variety of encryption techniques.

DevSecOpsRead Post >

DevSecOps—short for Development Security Operations—is the practice of incorporating security continuously throughout the application development lifecycle.

Domain SpoofingRead Post >

Domain spoofing is a form of phishing where an attacker impersonates a known business or person with fake website or email domain to fool people into the trusting them.

e
Email SpoofingRead Post >

Email spoofing is a type of cyberattack that targets businesses by using emails with forged sender addresses. Because the recipient trusts the alleged sender, they are more likely to open the email and interact with its contents, such as a malicious link or attachment.

EndpointRead Post >

An endpoint is any device that can be connected to a network. Common examples of endpoints include computers, laptops, mobile phones, tablets and servers.

Endpoint Detection and Response (EDR)Read Post >

Endpoint Detection and Response (EDR) is defined as a solution that records and store endpoint-system-level behaviors, use various data analytics techniques to detect suspicious system behavior, provide contextual information, block malicious activity, and provide remediation suggestions to restore affected systems.

Endpoint ManagementRead Post >

Endpoint management is an IT and cybersecurity process that consists of two main tasks: evaluating, assigning and overseeing the access rights of all endpoints; and applying security policies and tools that will reduce the risk of an attack or prevent such events.

Endpoint Protection SoftwareRead Post >

Endpoint protection software is a cybersecurity solution to defend and protect endpoints by examining files, processes and system activity for suspicious or malicious indicators.

Endpoint SecurityRead Post >

Endpoint security, or endpoint protection, is the cybersecurity approach to defending endpoints – such as desktops, laptops, and mobile devices – from malicious activity.

Ethical HackerRead Post >

An ethical hacker, also known as a ‘white hat hacker’, is employed to legally break into computers and networks to test an organization’s overall security. Ethical hackers possess all the skills of a cyber criminal but use their knowledge to improve organizations rather than exploit and damage them.

f
Fileless MalwareRead Post >

Fileless malware is a type of malicious activity that uses native, legitimate tools built in to a system to execute a cyber attack. Unlike traditional malware, fileless malware does not require an attacker to install any code on a target’s system, making it hard to detect.

h
HoneypotsRead Post >

A honeypot is a cybersecurity mechanism that leverages a manufactured attack target to lure cybercriminals away from legitimate targets, and also gathers intelligence about the identity, methods and motivations of adversaries.

Hybrid CloudRead Post >

The hybrid cloud is an IT environment that combines elements of a public cloud, private cloud and on-premises infrastructure into a single, common, unified architecture.

i
Identity SecurityRead Post >

Identity security is a comprehensive solution that protects all types of identities to detect and prevent identity-driven breaches.

IoT SecurityRead Post >

IoT security is a subsect of cybersecurity that focuses on protecting, monitoring and remediating threats related to the Internet of Things (IoT) — or the network of connected devices that gather, store and share data via the internet.

IT SecurityRead Post >

IT security is the overarching term used to describe the collective strategies, methods, solutions and tools used to protect the confidentiality, integrity and availability of the organization’s data and digital assets.

l
Lateral MovementRead Post >

Lateral movement refers to the techniques that a cyberattacker uses, after gaining initial access, to move deeper into a network in search of sensitive data and other high-value assets.

m
MalvertisingRead Post >

Malvertising is a relatively new cyberattack technique that injects malicious code within digital ads.

MalwareRead Post >

Malware (malicious software) is a term used to describe any program or code that is created with the intent to do harm to a computer, network, or server.

Malware AnalysisRead Post >

Malware analysis is the process of understanding the behavior and purpose of a suspicious file or URL to help detect and mitigate potential threats.

Malware vs VirusRead Post >

The term malware describes any program or code created with the intent to do harm to a computer, network or server. A virus is a type of malware limited only to programs or code that self-replicates or copies itself in order to spread to other devices or areas of the network.

Man in the Middle AttacksRead Post >

A man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack is a type of cyberattack in which a third party infiltrates a conversation between a network user and a web application.

MITRE ATT&CK FrameworkRead Post >

The MITRE ATTACK Framework is a curated knowledge base that tracks cyber adversary tactics and techniques used by threat actors across the entire attack lifecycle.

Mobile MalwareRead Post >

Mobile malware is malicious software designed to target mobile devices. Click here to read about the different types and distribution methods.

n
Network SecurityRead Post >

Network security refers to the tools, technologies and processes that protect an organization’s network and critical infrastructure from unauthorized use, cyberattacks, data loss and other security threats.

Next-Gen Antivirus (NGAV)Read Post >

Next-Generation Antivirus (NGAV) uses a combination of artificial intelligence, behavioral detection, machine learning algorithms, and exploit mitigation, so known and unknown threats can be anticipated and immediately prevented.

NTLM ExplainedRead Post >

Windows New Technology LAN Manager (NTLM) is a suite of security protocols offered by Microsoft to authenticate users’ identity and protect the integrity and confidentiality of their activity.

p
Patch ManagementRead Post >

Patch management is the process of identifying and deploying software updates, or “patches,” to a variety of endpoints, including computers, mobile devices, and servers.

Penetration TestingRead Post >

Penetration testing, or pen testing, is the simulation of real-world attacks in order to test an organization’s detection and response capabilities. 

PhishingRead Post >

Phishing is a type of cyber attack that uses email, SMS, phone, or social media to entice a victim to share sensitive information — such as passwords or account numbers — or to download a malicious file that will install viruses on their computer or phone.

r
RansomwareRead Post >

Ransomware is a type of malware that encrypts a victim’s data in demand of a payment to restore access. If the ransom payment is not made, the malicious actor publishes the data on the dark web or blocks access to the files in perpetuity.

Ransomware as a Service (RaaS)Read Post >

Ransomware as a Service (RaaS) is a business model used by ransomware developers, in which they lease ransomware variants in the same way that legitimate software developers lease SaaS products.

Red Team vs Blue TeamRead Post >

A red team/blue team exercise is a cybersecurity assessment technique that uses simulated attacks to gauge the strength of the organization’s existing security capabilities and identify areas of improvement in a low-risk environment.

Rootkit MalwareRead Post >

Rootkit malware is a collection of software designed to give malicious actors control of a computer, network or application.

s
ScarewareRead Post >

Scareware is a type of malware attack that claims to have detected a virus or other issue on a device and directs the user to download or buy malicious software to resolve the problem.

Security Operations Center (SOC)Read Post >

A security operations center, or SOC, is the collective term for the people, processes and technologies responsible for monitoring, analyzing and maintaining an organization’s information security.

Security Orchestration, Automation and Response (SOAR)Read Post >

Security orchestration, automation and response (SOAR) is a collection of software programs developed to bolster an organization’s cybersecurity posture. A SOAR platform enables a security analyst team to monitor security data from a variety of sources, including security information and management systems and threat intelligence platforms.

Spear-PhishingRead Post >

Spear-phishing is a targeted attack that uses fraudulent emails, texts and phone calls in order to steal a specific person's sensitive information.

Spoofing AttacksRead Post >

In the cybersecurity world, spoofing is the act of disguising communication or activity from an unknown source and presenting it as a familiar or trusted source.

SpywareRead Post >

Spyware is a type of unwanted, malicious software that infects a computer or other device and collects information about a user’s web activity without their knowledge or consent.

Supply Chain AttackRead Post >

A supply chain attack is a type of cyberattack that targets a trusted third party vendor who offers services or software vital to the supply chain.

t
Threat HuntingRead Post >

Threat hunting is the practice of proactively searching for cyber threats that are lurking undetected in a network. Cyber threat hunting digs deep to find malicious actors in your environment that have slipped past your initial endpoint security defenses.

Threat IntelligenceRead Post >

Threat intelligence is data that is collected, processed, and analyzed to understand a threat actor's motives, targets, and attack behaviors.

v
Vulnerability ManagementRead Post >

Vulnerability management is the ongoing, regular process of identifying, assessing, reporting on, managing and remediating security risks to keep all systems and assets in a network protected.

w
Web Application FirewallRead Post >

A Web Application Firewall (WAF) is a security device designed to protect organizations at the application level by filtering, monitoring and analyzing HTTP and HTTPS traffic between the web application and the internet.

Whaling AttacksRead Post >

A whaling attack is a social engineering attack against a specific executive or senior employee with the purpose of stealing money or information, or gaining access to the person’s computer in order to execute further attacks.

x
XDRRead Post >

XDR is a holistic approach that streamlines security data ingestion, analysis, and workflows across an organization’s entire security stack to enhance visibility around hidden and advanced threats, and to unify the response

z
Zero Trust SecurityRead Post >

Zero Trust is a security concept that requires all users to be authenticated and authorized before being granted access to applications and data.

Zero Trust StrategyRead Post >

In this post, we'll outline a framework for a true Zero Trust model that adheres to industry best practices while specifically avoiding the potential pitfalls.

Zero-Day AttacksRead Post >

A zero-day attack occurs when a hacker releases malware to exploit the software vulnerability before the software developer has patched the flaw.

Back to Top