Types of Ransomware

May 27, 2021

What Are the Different Types of Ransomware?

Ransomware variants takes many forms, but they all have one thing in common — they demand a ransom in exchange for restored access to your system or files. It’s also important to remember that you’re dealing with criminals, they don’t always follow through with their end of the “deal.” Ransomware attacks are designed to prey on people’s desperation and fear in order to convince victims to pay.

WannaCry ransom message demanding $600 in bitcoin

WannaCry ransom message

Here are the most common types:

1. Crypto malware or encryptors are one of the most well-known and damaging variants. This type encrypts the files and data within a system, making the content inaccessible without a decryption key.

2. Lockers completely lock you out of your system, so your files and applications are inaccessible. A lock screen displays the ransom demand, possibly with a countdown clock to increase urgency and drive victims to act.

3. Scareware is fake software that claims to have detected a virus or other issue on your computer and directs you to pay to resolve the problem. Some types of scareware lock the computer, while others simply flood the screen with pop-up alerts without actually damaging files.

4. Doxware or leakware threatens to distribute sensitive personal or company information online, and many people panic and pay the ransom to prevent private data from falling into the wrong hands or entering the public domain. One variation is police-themed ransomware, which claims to be law enforcement and warns that illegal online activity has been detected, but jail time can be avoided by paying a fine.

5. RaaS (Ransomware as a Service) refers to malware hosted anonymously by a “professional” hacker that handles all aspects of the attack, from distributing ransomware to collecting payments and restoring access, in return for a cut of the loot.

Ransomware Examples

Below are just a few examples of some infamous ransomware detected over the last few years:

  • BitPaymer
  • Dharma
  • DoppelPaymer
  • GandCrab
  • Maze
  • MeduzaLocker
  • NetWalker
  • NotPetya
  • REvil
  • Ryuk
  • SamSam
  • WannaCry

Learn More

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